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Training Materials

OARE Short Course

July 2013

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OARE Access Problems and Solutions for Full-Text Articles (July 2013)

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SCOPUS: Searching for Scientific Articles (May 2010)

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Climate Change

Emissions-Impacts-Climate Change

Introduction
UNEP helps developing countries to reduce vulnerabilities and build resilience to the impacts of climate change. UNEP builds and strengthens national institutional capacities for vulnerability assessment and adaptation planning, and supports national efforts to integrate climate change adaptation measures into development planning and ecosystem management practices. The work is guided by and contributes to the Nairobi Work Programme on Impacts, Vulnerability and Adaptation (a programme developed by the UNFCCC to help countries understand climate change impacts and adapt to climate change). UNEP also promotes sustainable land-use management and reduced emissions from deforestation and degradation, bridging adaptation and mitigation.

Science and Assessments
Science and knowledge are critically important to enable society to understand and respond to threats posed by climate change. Decision makers need sound information on vulnerabilities to climate change grounded in the best science available. Equally important is sound information on the potential social and economic impacts of climate change, particular on more vulnerable groups like the extreme poor.
UNEP has a legacy of facilitating credible impact assessments based on the drivers-pressures-state-impact-responses (DPSIR) framework used for the Global Environment Outlook (GEO) series. It has developed different vulnerability and impact assessment (VIA) methodologies suitable for different purposes, including climate change VIA assessment at the national and municipal levels. Assessments respond to demands from Governments, and are normally led by them. They aim to support development of effective and costed adaptation options, and to create more clarity on the choices available to decision makers based on sound science and knowledge. The scientific and assessment activities lay the foundation for UNEP’s policy support and capacity building work.

Partners
UNEP collaborates with many partners to strengthen the ability of individuals, organizations and countries to combat climate change.

GRID-Arendal
A UNEP collaborating center, GRID-Arendal supports decision making and awareness-raising through environmental information management and assessment, capacity building and outreach.

UNEP Risø Centre on Energy, Climate and Sustainable Development
Based in Denmark, the centre supports UNEP in its aim to incorporate environmental aspects into energy planning and policy worldwide.

World Conservation Monitoring Centre (WCMC)
The UNEP-WCMC aims to put authoritative knowledge on biodiversity and climate change at the heart of decision-making, enabling better links between climate and biodiversity policy.

Other Partners
An increasing number of UN agencies are actively engaged in addressing climate change through dedicated and ongoing programmes. For example, the United Nations Institute for Training and Research runs a Climate Change Programme to boost expertise in the developing world.

Tools
UNEP offers a wide range of tools and resources on climate change to assist everyone, from households and students to scientists and governments. And we want to hear from you to promote debate, understanding and action on climate change. You can seek advice from a UNEP expert. Young people can have their say on climate change and other topics at Speaker’s Corner.

New theme page launched on UNEP Live
The new page on UNEP’s knowledge management platform UNEP Live highlights initiatives at the national and regional levels, as well as responses the international community is putting in place. The Emissions-Impact-Climate Change page includes:

The Emissions Gap Report:
UNEP conducts periodic scientific assessments of the Emissions Gap on climate change mitigation scenarios. It focuses on examining the gap in 2030 between emission levels consistent with the 2 °C limit, and levels expected if country pledges/commitments are met. UNEP reports that the gap is large, but can be bridged through concerted action that promotes both development goals and climate change mitigation.

INDC’S:
Intended nationally determined contributions (INDCs), are the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Parties’ post-2020 pledges to achieving the objective of the Convention. By submitting their INDCs, governments are determining the effort they will make in reducing emissions of greenhouse gases. The INDC approach allows countries to tailor their action on climate change to their own national priorities, capabilities and ambitions thus effectively contributing to collective action.

Non State Actions:
Mitigation and adaptation initiatives don’t only concern Government driven actions. Non state actions, also known as International cooperative initiatives (ICIs) are cooperative climate actions undertaken around the world at various levels by governments, international organizations, civil society, and business that contribute to reducing greenhouse gas emissions. UNEP Live’s new theme page shows how these actions hold significant promise for raising the level of emission reduction ambition needed to close the global emissions gap to 2020 thus impacting national and international climate change commitments.

REDD+:
Forests play an integral role in mitigating climate change as carbon sinks - storing more carbon than both the atmosphere and the world's oil reserves. They also remove carbon from the atmosphere through photosynthesis, which converts atmospheric carbon to organic matter. While forests work diligently to clean up carbon emissions from burning fossil fuels, humans exacerbate the problem through deforestation by pumping carbon right back into the atmosphere.  In this context,  "REDD+" is a mechanism that considers Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation, including the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks in order to create a financial value for the carbon stored in forests, offering incentives for developing countries.

CLICC:
Greater consistency in the assessment and communication of climate impacts and vulnerabilities at a country level is necessary and the Country Level Impacts of Climate Change (CLICC) project aims to do just that by developing a common process for countries to present the impacts of climate change at the national level.